Saturday, August 28, 2021

The Nebulizer Machine is Used and How it Works

What is a Nebulizer Machine?

The Nebulizer Machine is Used and How it Works

Do you know what is nebulizer machine ? I will explain to you...

The nebulizer machine is a medical device that is used to continuously convert medicinal liquids into aerosol particles. These aerosol particles are very useful when inhaled into the lungs. The effect of this treatment is to restore the condition of a bronchial spasm.

Nebulization is an inhalation therapy that uses a nebulizer machine. Initially, this therapy was only done in cases of asthma, but as science progressed and several studies showed this therapy was also useful in treating other airways. In children with a family history of atopy, bronchial hyperactivity (HRB) may occur with or without mucus/sputum retention. This condition is very disturbing, even children can vomit because of difficulty expelling phlegm during sleep due to coughing. Other cases such as allergic rhinitis, croup, bronchiolitis, pneumonia, aspiration, and chronic lung disease also gave a positive response after nebulization.

There are several ways in inhalation therapy, namely,
  1. Metered-dose inhaler (MDI, metered dose inhaler),
  2. Evaporation (gas-powered handheld nebulizer),
  3. Inhalation with intermittent positive pressure breathing (IPPB).
  4. Through intubation of patients on ventilators

Nebulizer Machine Method

In the implementation of the treatment, the drug to be used is first mixed with distilled water and NaC1 (saline solution) with about 0.9% which functions as a solvent which is then put into a drug mixing tube and placed in a water medium so that the misting process that occurs is the result of misting. the medicinal liquid.

The fogging process is caused by the breakdown of water molecules which then become steam or fog because they are vibrated by a transducer with a sufficiently large frequency above 1 MHz. so that the water particles will break apart and become steam.

Basically, this tool uses a mechanical wave generated by a transducer caused by the piezoelectric effect. Where the nature of a quartz crystal if it is under pressure it can cause vibrations and this vibration is used to suppress the water so that the misting process occurs or nebulizes it into an aerosol.

The aerosol is inhaled by the child through a mouthpiece or enclosure. The aerosol formed produces very small particles that can enter the respiratory tract, which is <10 m in size. This size determines the target, very small particles are needed to be able to reach the part of the breath. The target organs along the respiratory tract are the nose, sinuses, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and even the alveoli.

The working principle of the tool is to use ultrasonic principles that work using water with drugs (in liquid form) which will then be converted into very small particles which are commonly called steam. The steam is generated because there are ultrasonic waves and distributes it through the respiratory tract with the help of a mouthpiece or airway hose. In this tool, a blower is also added to encourage the results of the misting so that it can enter through the airways so that it can enter the patient's body. more effective.

This method is used by using a disposable nebulizer mouthpiece and pumping air (pressurizer) or oxygen. The nebulizer machine solution is placed in the nebulizer chamber. This method requires special training and is widely used in hospitals. The advantage of this method is that it can be used with solutions that are higher in concentration than MDI. The disadvantage is that only 50-70% is converted into aerosol and the rest is trapped in the nebulizer machine itself.

The amount of liquid contained in a handheld nebulizer is 4 cc with a gas velocity of 6-8 liters/minute. Usually, its use is combined with mucolytic (eethylsistei) or sodium bicarbonate. For dilution, NaCl solution is usually used.

The Process of Breaking Water Molecules on the Nebulizer Machine

Breaking Water Molecules on the Nebulizer Machine

A piezo resonator is inserted and placed at the bottom of the water container to produce a nebula process. This resonator works based on the energy vibration generated from the oscillation generator, during this process, the energy vibration is transmitted in a direction perpendicular to the surface of the piezo resonance. By optimizing the depth of the water, so that it functions to produce a nebula where the energy will be concentrated into a nebula.

The result is that on the surface of the water there will be gas or small particles with a high volume, which is up to 6cc/minute with unformed particles. The nebulizer produces particles that are large enough that is, between 10-30 microns. The gas will collect around the chamber. Then the gas is flowed by a blower to be distributed to the mouthpiece to be inhaled by the patient. This whole process is believed to be the principle for turning water into mist using ultrasonic resonators.

Piezo Resonator Mode Drive and Piezo Performance Factor

The nebulizer machine is made of a piezo spherical ceramic plate with a high coefficient of mechanical quality Qm(a constant indicating the sharpness of the mechanical oscillations in the resonant frequency). 

Piezo Resonator

After the electrodes are formed on both sides, these electrodes undergo a gilding process and de-polarization is carried out so that a harmonic magnetic field occurs which causes the resonator to function as an ultrasonic resonator using the thickness of the vibration expansion mode.

The performance of a nebulizer machine is represented as the volume of mist per hour (typically, represented by ml/h), but this measure is generally determined by the following four control factors:
  • Acoustic pressure
  • The resonant frequency of the piezo resonator
  • Water depth
  • Voltage

Pump performance is represented as the volume of water pumped per hour, but the relative benefits are determined by the number of motor revolutions and the amount of torque. With a nebulizer machine, this resonator frequency (frequency series) is the motor number of revolutions and the displacement torque of the depth of the resonator in other words the “acoustic pressure” of the ultrasonic waves transmitted through the water.

When running the piezo resonator must pay attention to the thickness of the vibration expansion mode, the acoustic pressure P observed at the center of the axis of the sound wave transmission route is determined by the following formula:

For the thickness expansion mode, the resonant frequency can be increased by making a thin piezo resonator. Thus, make a thin resonator and larger, the wavelength becomes smaller and the resonator area becomes large, making it possible to achieve greater acoustic pressure. 

Thus, using a large thin resonator to apply greater acoustic pressure at the water surface will result in a nebula bigger.

Factors that Determine Atomization Efficiency

To carry out the nebula process, the nebulizer machine requires atomization efficiency. Where these factors use small resonators and highly efficient systems that allow volumes that have large atomizations using little power. Then create variations in the diameter and thickness of the electrode. Next, vary the composition pattern or overlapping redid piezo ceramic electrodes.

Atomization Efficiency

In the nebulizer machine model, the state of the water waves where the nebula process is easy for the water to be atomized and maintained at a certain frequency spectrum (the resonant frequency is determined by the thickness of the resonator) according to the diameter of the piezo resonator and a certain depth.

As for why atomization occurs when the diameter of the resonator and the frequency spectrum are fixed according to the material used, the following explanation can be given. The oscillating waves of the particles of the medium that are concentrated at the end of the liquid swell and are reflected and propagated to a point whereby the air. It is thought that the wavelength is determined by the speed of the repetition. occur. However, the atomization mechanism requires an effective factor that determines the swelling of the water column, namely, the acoustic pressure of the water surface that is required optimally. Water depth and frequency serve as major factors in determining the atomization process.

Atomization Efficiency Piezo

So above is my article about The Nebulizer Machine is Used and How it Works, I hope it can be useful for you.